Garlic is a bulbous vegetable. It contains huge amount of nutrients, but low amount of calories. It is also rich in manganese, vitamin B6, vitamin, selenium and fiber. Garlic acts as powerful natural antibiotic when it is taken before breakfast, because before breakfast bacteria exposed at its maximum and cannot defend itself with garlic. It is very much effective in atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes.
Allicin, a compound found in garlic lowers cholesterol levels, prevent blood clotting and have anti –cancer and anti- microbial properties. Garlic is used all over the world due to its pungent flavor and condiment. the leaves of the garlic is used as a popular vegetable in many parts of the Asia.
The scientific name of garlic is allium sativum. Garlic is a great source of carbohydrates, phosphorus and proteins. Garlic also helps in indigestion. Garlic originated from central Asia, spread to the Middle East and northern Africa in 3000 B.C. and reached to Europe. Due to it's unique nutritional value and medicinal importance, it is widely spread all over the world.
Commercially, garlic is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra at an average yield of 4.535tonnes/ ha. Punjab produces highest yield of 14.73 tones’/ha. Karnataka, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, also produces a sizeable amount of garlic in cooler regions of the states.
Cultivation and Climatic Conditions
Garlic does not require too hot or too cold conditions to grow. It requires moderate temperature. It grows well at elevations of 1000 to 1300 m above sea level. It is grown in Andhra Pradesh, Utter Pradesh, madras, Gujarat (Rajkot division). It requires well drainer black soil with rich in humus and having good content of potash. The planting of crop is done between august to November. The seed rate of garlic is 315 -500 per hectares. The production yield of garlic is 50/70 quintals per hectare of land. The cultivation of garlic is nearly propagated asexually by planting its cloves in the ground.
Nutritional composition of garlic per 100grams
|Food Energy||323 kcal|
|Phosphorus||296 milli grams|
|Sodium||67 milli grams|
|Potassium||770 milli grams|
|Iron||33.53 milli grams|
|Thiamine||0.332 milli grams|
|Riboflavin||0.336 milli grams|
|Niacin||1.640 milli grams|
|Ascorbic acid||3.0 milli grams|
The glycemic index has a range of 0 to 100 and it gives the value how fast a food containing carbohydrates affect the blood sugar level when consumed. Foods having glycemic index of less than 50 considered as low glycemic index foods, 50-70 as moderate and above 70 as high GI foods.
Garlic is not even rich in carbohydrates, hence influences the sugar levels.
- Stabilizes Blood Pressure
- Prevents Cardiovascular Diseases
- Improves Bone Health
- Relieves Intestinal Ailments
- Reducing Yeast Infections
Stabilizes Blood Pressure
Sally cysteine, is a bioactive sulfur compound found in garlic which has been very effective in lowering blood pressure by 10mmHg (systolic pressure) and 8mmHg (diastolic pressure). Deficiency of sulfur causes high blood pressure and get stabilized by garlic extract.
Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases
It has been found that garlic is very much effective against atherosclerosis. By lowering bad cholesterol, lipid and by decreasing platelets aggregation garlic prevents cardiovascular diseases.
Improves Bone Health
It has been found in the studies that garlic is very much effective against osteoporosis and arthritis just because due to age and unhealthy lifestyle bones become weak which leads to fracture as much as earlier. Researchers found that diallyl disulfide prevents damaging of bones, as it suppresses the matrix degrading enzymes.
Relieves Intestinal Ailments
Garlic is very much effective against H.pylori infections. It has power to differentiate between good and bad bacteria and works against harmful bacteria, enterobacteria. Garlic is very much effective in upset stomach or broken digestive system.
Reducing Yeast Infections
Fresh garlic extract is highly effective against candida infections which causes candida vaginitis. Yeast infections is very much embarrassing and distressing.
There are wide varieties of garlic are available some of them as follows:
- Softneck garlic
- Hardneck garlic
- Brightest bulb
- Purple stripe
- Marbled purple stripe
- Glazed purple stripe
- Silver screen
How to Preserve
Garlic should be kept in a good air circulation i.e. it should kept in airy mesh or basket, bowl or paper bags with ventilation. It should not kept in air tight containers as sprouting comes out from that. Domestically, garlic can be stored as warm (above 18° (64°) and dried to keep it dormant. Commercially, it is stored at 0° (32°) in a dry, low, humidity environment .by keeping the tops remain attached, garlic can be stored for longer time.
- Bagna canda
- Garlic fingers
- Garlic oil
- Garlic ice cream
- Garlic soup
- Garlic sausage
- Honey garlic sauce
- Smoked garlic
- Venweristbraten mujdei
- Laba garlic
Garlic is also used as preservative for fish and meat and displays antimicrobial effects at temperature as high as 120 degree Celsius. The sticky juice found in the bulb of the garlic is used as adhesive agents as in mending glass and porcelain. Polysulfide product, derived from environmentally benign garlic used as nematicide and insecticide that controls cabbage root fly and red mite in poultry.